College of Central Florida College of Central Florida

Study Guide for Reading Comprehension
Developed by Marguerite Jones

(If you are using Internet Explorer and you find that the rollover function [see below] does not work, from the top menu bar please select Tools, then check Compatibility View)

This study guide and comprehensive test was developed to help you review major skills within the preparatory reading 1 and 2 classes.

The following are reading strategies to help you understand the reading process. Understanding and using these strategies will help you become an active participant, which will increase your comprehension and your retention.

Before reading

v     Skim the text, read titles, headings, subheadings, tables, bold and italicized words and illustrations. Look for "clues" about the content. Ask yourself, "What details can help prepare me for reading?"

v     What is your purpose for reading?

v     Read the summary at the end of the chapter.

v     Think about what you already know about the subject (prior knowledge).

v     Be sure to ask questions if there is confusion.

v     Restate the questions; these questions give purpose to your reading.

v     Remember that reading is thinking and active participants think while they read.

v     Determine what you want to learn or find out from the material.

During Reading

v     Identify confusing parts and reread them.

v     Mark, highlight or underline key information.

v     Visualize using text details in order to build your understanding.

v     What is the importance of the information? Do I need to remember this?

v     Continue to ask questions.

v     Ask yourself continually, "Do I understand what I just read and do I see how it fits?"

v     Form a picture in your mind about what you read.

After reading

v     Summarize the most important parts and write down any questions you have.

v     Put ideas into your own words.

v     Reread parts that you do not understand.

v     Review immediately any material you were unable to recall.

v     You should be able to answer the questions you formulated during reading.

Term: Main Idea

The main idea of a passage is the central thought or the point the author is trying to convey. The main idea is the "key idea" the author is stating about the topic. Ask yourself who or what the paragraph is about; this will be the topic. Look for both major and minor details. These details support the main idea by telling who, what, when, and where. Locating the topic and supporting details helps to clarify the author's point and increases your comprehension. Once you have found the "key idea" about the passage, you have located the main idea.

Reading tips to locate the main idea:

1. Ask yourself two questions: Who or what is the passage about? What is the topic or the subject the selection is about? As you read, ask yourself, "What is the topic and what is the author's main point about the topic"?

2. What general point does the author want to make about the topic?

3. Look for both major and minor details. This helps to further explain the idea. Supporting details presents fact, reasons, definition and examples.

4. Look for an idea that is repeated throughout the passage. If the idea is the same but stated in a different manner that thought is the main idea.

5. Create a one sentence summary of the passage and include the topic in the summary.

6. The main idea may be in the first sentence of the paragraph, but not always. It may be located within the paragraph or at the end of the paragraph. The main idea may even appear twice—at the beginning and again at the end of—the paragraph.

Use the paragraph below as an example. First, find the topic and then look for the main idea.

Summer is a splendid time to go to the beach. The weather is hot and the days are long. Long walks along the beach are relaxing and many people take pleasure in walking along the beach. Children love to play in the waves and make sand castles. One may see many different castles at the beach. The beach is enjoyable for all ages.

In this paragraph:

What is the topic? Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

What is the main idea? Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Here is another example:

There are different stages of cancer. Stages 0, I, II, III and IV. Stage 0 is an early cancer that is present in the layer of cells which it began. Stages I, II and III indicate more extensive disease, greater tumor size and the spread of the cancer to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the primary tumor.  In stage IV the cancer has spread to another organ.

Staging is based on knowledge of the way cancer develops. Cancer cells divide and grow without control or order to form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. As the tumor grows, it can invade nearby organs and tissues. Cancer cells can also break away from the tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. By moving through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, cancer can spread from the primary site to form new tumors in other organs. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.

Staging helps researchers and health care providers exchange information about patients. It also gives them a common language for evaluating the results of clinical trials and comparing the results of different trials.  (U.S. National Institutes of Health)

In this paragraph

What is the topic?  (Roll over for answer)text annotation indicator

What is the main idea? (Roll over for answer)text annotation indicator

Tip: Remember, when looking for the main idea locate the topic and find supporting details (both major and minor). Look for repeated ideas and create a one sentence summary that includes the topic.

Term: Supporting Details

Supporting details explain, develop, and illustrate the main idea. There are two kinds of details—major and minor. Major details are primary points that support the main idea. Minor details further explain the major details.

 Major Details

            explain the main idea

            are more specific than the main idea

            provide the examples, reasons, statistics and studies that help make the main idea clear

            and convincing

            answer readers' questions about the main idea

 Minor Details

            explain a major detail

            are more specific then major details

            repeat key points and add colorful detail

Below is an example that includes both major and minor details. From the sample below, can you correctly choose both major and minor details?

1There are different stages of cancer. 2Stages 0, I, II, III and IV. 3Stage 0 is an early cancer that is present in the layer of cells which it began. 4The malignant cells have not yet invaded the deeper epithelial tissue or spread to other parts of the body. 5Stages I, II and III indicate more extensive disease, greater tumor size and the spread of the cancer to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the primary tumor.  6In stage IV the cancer has spread to another organ. (U.S. National Institutes of Health)

Sentence 1 – major or minor Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Sentence 2 – major or minor Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Sentence 3 – major or minor Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Sentence 4 – major or minor Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Sentence 5 – major or minor Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Sentence 6 – major or minor Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Sentence 1 is a major detail and sentence 2 tells more about sentence 1; it is a minor detail. Sentence 3 is a major detail and sentence 4 is a minor detail; it tells more about sentence 3. Sentences 5 and 6 are both major details.

Tip: Minor details can be found between two major details. Look for changes in thought pattern.

Term: Implied main idea

The implied main idea is not clearly stated in any one sentence in the paragraph or passage. It is inferred by the various details within the passage. Follow these steps to figure out the implied main idea

1.  Implied main idea signals include title, topic, subtopics and details.

2.  When looking for the implied main idea ask yourself, "What are the most important parts that I just read?" 

3.  "What does the author want me to know?"

4. "What is the single most important point the author wants me to know?"

Read the following paragraph and try to find the implied main idea.

Difficulty walking, blurred vision, slurred speech, slowed reaction times, impaired memory: Clearly, alcohol affects the brain. Some of these impairments are detectable after only one or two drinks and quickly resolve when drinking stops. On the other hand, a person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may have brain deficits that persist well after he or she achieves sobriety. Exactly how alcohol affects the brain and the likelihood of reversing the impact of heavy drinking on the brain remain hot topics in alcohol research today. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publications Distribution Center)

Who or What is this paragraph about? (Any words, phrases, or ideas that are mentioned over and over are clues to answering this question. Usually the answer to this question can be summed up in one or two words.)

What does the writer really want you to know about the Who or What? To answer this question you will need to analyze all the sentences in the paragraph to see what the writer specifically wants you to know. Based on the details, what is the single most important point the author is making about the topic?

Answer: Roll over for answertext annotation indicator


Clipboard01.jpg

 

What does this cartoon imply about the newly married couple whose car has broken down?

The details tell you the implied point.

The newlyweds' car has broken down. Since they are hitchhiking in opposite directions, the implied point is that their marriage has broken down as well. 

 

 

 

Term: Inferences

Making an inference refers to information that is implied or inferred. This means that the information is never clearly stated. Making an inference is using clues to give you a deeper understanding of your reading; you "read between the lines" to figure out what the author is saying in the passage.

When you infer, you go beyond the surface details to see other meanings that the details suggest or imply (not stated). When the meanings of words are not stated clearly in the context of the text, they may be implied—that is, suggested or hinted. When meanings are implied, you may infer what the author means.

Inference is a word that infers a conclusion. If you infer that something has happened, you do not hear or see the actual event. But from what you know, it makes sense to think that it has happened.

Read the following example and draw a logical conclusion to find what has been implied.

He gave a speech to a boisterous crowd in front of the White House. Flags were waving all along the platform and he talked about what could be done to improve the health care of Americans. He made promises to work hard to help all Americans.

Who is the person giving the speech?

By reading "between the lines," you can conclude that the person giving the speech is the President of the United States.

Here is another example:

The campers sat at the campfire laughing and having a good time when a strange noise came from the woods. The campers suddenly became silent and sat very still, as they could hear a rustling in the bushes. They had heard that bears were known to have lived around this area and they began to panic. Suddenly, the creature appeared from the bushes. It was hardly a bear. In fact, the sight of long whiskers, a twitching nose and floppy ears couldn't have scared anyone.

What came out of the bushes? By using inferences you can infer that a rabbit came out the bushes. The author did not state that it was a rabbit, but by reading the details you came to the conclusion that it was a rabbit and not a bear.

Term: Transitions and Thought pattern

Time Order Pattern

The time order pattern generally shows a chain of events. Details are arranged in a specific order according to their chronological relationships. These details are presented in an order that illustrates they either occurred already or should occur.

Time order transition words typically indicate steps, events or stages within a sequential order.

Narration and Process and two different types of time order pattern.

Narration shows a chain of events and tells a story or recounts events that have already happened.

Process shows stages, steps or directions and explains how things are done or could be done.

Signal words: Time order for both narration and process

…after, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, for a minute, hour, day, etc., during the morning, day, week, etc., most important, later, ordinarily, to begin with, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously….

Here is an example using time order patterns (Narrative). While reading, notice the chain of events and the time order signal words.

Columbia was the oldest shuttle in the NASA fleet. The first mission occurred on April 12, 1981, as the Space Shuttle Columbia became the first shuttle to orbit Earth. Two crewmembers, John Young and Robert Crippen, flew Columbia into orbit. The mission lasted for 36 hours and returned to Edwards Air Force Base in California on April 14. The second flight for Space Shuttle Columbia occurred November 12, 1981. The crewmembers during this flight included Joe Engle and Richard Truly. During this flight the crew members tested a remote manipulator system robot arm. The third flight for Columbia occurred on March 22, 1982. Two crew members were included on this flight. The crewmembers were Jack Lousma and Gordon Fullerton. During this mission the crew exposed the shuttle to extreme thermal stress and conducted science experiments. Eventually the Space Shuttle Columbia met with disaster. On February 1, 2003, the shuttle disintegrated over Texas, killing all seven crewmembers.

What are the time order words used in this paragraph?

Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Here is an example using time order patterns (Process). While you are reading, notice the stages, steps or directions and explanation of how things are done or could be done.

Scuba diving can be fun if you follow the safety precautions, particularly while ascending. First, you should be sure that the air pressure in the scuba tank is at least 500 psi. This will allow you to ascend properly with sufficient air to reach the surface. Second, you must ascend slowly. A good rule of thumb is to rise no faster than your bubbles. If you ascend too quickly, the nitrogen in your blood may form bubbles, resulting in what divers call the bends. Third, do safety stops before you reach the surface. Hovering at 15 feet for five minutes will allow the gasses in your body to dissipate and prevent the bends. Finally, look up and listen to make sure that the surface is clear. Boaters cannot see you under water. Follow these steps and finish your dive safely.  

What are the time order words used in this paragraph?

Roll over for answer  text annotation indicator         

Space Order Pattern

The space order pattern describes objects, features or locations as they relate to each other based on the way it is arranged in space.

Signal words: Space order

…at the left, at the right, in the center, on the side, along the edge, on top, below, beneath, under, around, above, over, straight ahead, at the top, at the bottom, surrounding, opposite, at the rear, at the front, in front of, beside, behind, next to, nearby, in the distance, beyond, in the forefront, in the foreground, within sight, out of sight, across, under, nearer, adjacent, in the background.

Here are some examples of space order pattern. As you read, notice the signal words.

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

Stars are located high in the sky.

J is adjacent to K in the alphabet.

The book, high on the shelf, is beyond my reach.

I can easily go to the store because it is nearby.

I did not see the screwdriver because it was underneath the car.

Listing Pattern

In this pattern the author lists a series or set of reasons in the order in which something occurs. Changing the order does not change the meaning.

Signal words: Listing pattern

…also, final, and, finally, first, furthermore, in addition, last of all, moreover, besides, first of all, another, for one thing, next, last, one, second, third…

Here is an example using signal words for a listing pattern. As you read, notice the signal words and how a list of events is listed.

The president is the head of the executive branch and has a large role in making America's laws. His job is to approve the law that Congress creates. When the Senate and the House approve a bill, they send it to the president. If he agrees with the law, he signs it and the law goes into effect.

In addition to playing a key role in the lawmaking process, the president has several duties. He serves as the American head of state, meaning that he meets with the leaders of other countries and can make treaties with them. However, the Senate must approve any treaty before it becomes official.

Also, the president is the official head of the U.S. military. He can authorize the use of troops overseas without declaring war. To officially declare war, though, he must get the approval of the congress.                                                                                                 A service of the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office

Classification

Classification divides a topic into parts that share similar characteristics. These parts can be classified as subgroups

Signal words: Classification order

…another (group, kind, type), characteristics, order, traits, first type, second kind…

 Here is an example for classification. Note the italicized words.

There are two types of fertilizer you can use on your garden. The first type is the old fashioned kind made from compost. The second type is the kind made from chemicals.

Cause and effect

Cause and effect is the relationship between two things when one thing makes something else happen. For example, if you lie in the sun and don't use a sun block you will get sunburned. Not using the sun block is the cause, getting sunburned is the effect.

A cause is something that makes something else happen. To determine the cause, ask the question "Why did this happen?"

An effect is something that makes something else happen. To determine the cause, ask the question "What happened?"

Signal words: Cause and Effect

…because, so, so that, if then, consequently, thus, since, for, for this reason, as a result of, therefore, due to, this is how, nevertheless, and accordingly…

Use the examples below to locate the cause and effect.

The students in the science class are struggling to perform well on tests, even though they are studying in advance. When asked why they are struggling, the students stated that the material they study is never on the test.

What is the cause? Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

What is the effect? Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Here is another example:

Thomas walked into a recently cleaned glass door. In doing so, he broke his nose.

What is the cause? Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

What is the effect? Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Comparison and Contrast pattern

Comparison – points out ways in which two or more ideas or alike.

Signal words: Comparison

…alike, as well as, similarly, in like manner, in the same way, in like manner, likewise, same, just like,  just as, similar and, resemble…

Here is an example of a comparison. As you read, figure out what is being compared and look for signal words.

Parasailing and skydiving are similar sports. Parasailing, just like skydiving, uses a parachute as the main component of the sport. In both sports you are strapped into a harness and the harness is connected to a parachute. Air under the parachute causes lift, which allows the person to slowly descend. In parasailing as in skydiving, the parachute must be controlled. In parasailing a line from the boat controls the parachute. Likewise, in skydiving a line from your harness controls the parachute. Parasailing and skydiving allow you to see the earth form a different perspective.

Contrast – points out ways in which two or more ideas are different.

Signal words: Contrast

…on the contrary, notwithstanding, but, however, nevertheless, in spite of, in contrast, yet, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, or, nor, conversely, at the same time, while this may be true…

Here is an example of a contrast. As you read, figure out what is being contrasted and look for signal words.

Although parasailing and sky diving have many similarities, there are also significant differences. In parasailing, a line from the boat controls the parachute. The boat operator controls your rate of descent. On the other hand, in skydiving the line from your harness controls the parachute. Unlike parasailing, you control your rate of descent.

Generalization and Example thought pattern

Using this pattern the author makes a general statement and then gives an example or a series of examples to clarify the generalization within the sentence.

Examples follow a definition to show how the word is used or applied.

The definition explains the meaning of the new word or new term.

Signal words: Definition and Example:

…for instance, to illustrate, thus, in other words, as an illustration, in particular, such as and for example…

Here is a sentence using an example thought pattern. As you read, notice the signal words.

The group was known for its copious parties. Food and drink were abundant.

Tip: As you are reading a new term look at the information that surrounds the new term, and how it is used. In the sentences above, the word "copious" is the new term. The next sentence explains that copious means abundant. Understanding new terms in this manner is called using context clues.

Term:  Context Clues

There are context clues you can use to help you understand the new term, or word. Below are the types of clues.

Synonyms are different words with identical or very similar meanings. For example, the words "damaged" and "blemished" mean the same and therefore are synonyms.

Antonyms are words that mean the opposite of another word. Antonyms help you to see what the word is not. For example, the words "stationary" and "moving" are antonyms. If something is "stationary" it cannot "move."

General Context Clues – If a sentence does not have a synonym or antonym, you would use the general context of the sentence to figure out the meaning of the word. You need to read all the words surrounding the unfamiliar word. Sometimes you will have to read the next sentence to figure out the meaning.

In the following sentence, notice how the meaning of the word "precocious" is explained immediately after its use.

The precocious students were a delight for the teacher; she had a room full of bright students.

In the next example, notice how the word "collaborated" is explained immediately after its use.

The class collaborated on the project. They each had something to contribute.

In the examples below, try to choose the correct answer of the bold word using context clues.

It is refreshing to see students so excited, so zealous in doing their homework.

A. zany           not correct                                 c. indifferent   not correct

b. dedicated    correct                                       d. jealous         not correct

Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

The decision Veronica made to study instead of going out for pizza with her friends was prudent. She got an A in the exam, while her friends all got D's.

a. antisocial                 not correct                     c. selfish                      not correct

b. careful and wise      correct                           d. calculating              not correct

Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Term: Fact and Opinion

Readers must know how to distinguish between fact and opinion to understand and evaluate the information they are reading.

A fact is something that is true or can be proven to be true. A Fact is objective, states reality, can be verified, and is presented with unbiased words.

An opinion is how someone feels about something or a particular subject, and cannot be proven to be true. It is subjective and interprets reality. It cannot be verified and is presented with biased words. 

Read each statement below and determine if each statement is a fact, an opinion or a fact and opinion.

Smoking is a bad habit.              Fact, Opinion, or Fact and Opinion Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Smoking is an unhealthy habit.    Fact, Opinion, or Fact and Opinion Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Daisies are the prettiest flowers in the garden.    Fact, Opinion, or Fact and Opinion Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Ocala is a city in Florida.                                      Fact, Opinion, or Fact and Opinion Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Florida is located in the United States.                Fact, Opinion, or Fact and Opinion Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

On April 30, 1789, George Washington took his oath of office as the first president of the United States, and was the best president in history.      

 Fact, Opinion, or Fact and Opinion Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Between 2008 and 2010, the use of cell phones increased by 183%.     Fact, Opinion, or Fact and Opinion Roll over for answertext annotation indicator

Term: Tone

The tone is the author's attitude toward the topic. The tone can be objective (impartial) or subjective (personal), biased (show favor for or against) or unbiased (show no favor for or against). The tone tells the reader how the author feels about the topic; it can be neutral or emotional.

In this example, what tone does the author take?

The man that I worked for in 1986 is my role model. Although my immediate superior in rank, he always treated me as an equal and valued my judgment and opinion. Throughout our working relationship he helped me develop my technical skills and management strategies. When I fell short, he took the responsibility to help me improve. When I succeeded, he credited me with the achievement. Following our assignment together, we continued to be good friends and remain so to this day.  

a. Irritated                        Roll over for answertext annotation indicator     

b. Emotionally neutral    Roll over for answertext annotation indicator  

c. Admiring                      Roll over for answer text annotation indicator      

d. Angry                       Roll over for answertext annotation indicator    


 

Reading Test

 

This practice reading test measures how well you understand what you have read. Some questions are sentence relationship type in which you must choose how two sentences are related. Other questions test your ability to recognize distinctions between main and secondary points and to make simple deductions from a series of facts. Specific skills to be tested are main ideas, supporting details, words in context, author's purpose and tone, relationships within and between sentences, fact and opinion, inferences, and conclusions.

 

1. Two underlined sentences are followed by a question or statement about them. Read each pair of sentences and then choose the best answer to the question or the best completion of the statement.

 

The American prison system functions primarily to exact retribution.

 In Japan, the courts are less concerned with sending people to jail than they are with rehabilitating them.

 From Sociology by Scott and Sally McNall

What does the second sentence do?

 A. It supports an idea found in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

B. It contrasts an idea that is expressed in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

C. It analyzes an idea presented in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

D. It illustrates an idea found in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

   

Further explanation:

The first sentence tells that prisons exist in the United States to punish, and the second sentence describes a place where the courts don't exist to punish, but to help people become better citizens.

Therefore, the first sentence states an idea, and the second sentence states a case where that idea is different. In other words, the second sentence contrasts the main idea of the first sentence.

 

2. Read the statement or passage and then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the statement or passage.

My parents' divorce was final. The house had been sold and the day had come to move. Thirty years of the family's life was now crammed into the garage. The two-by-fours that ran the length of the walls were the only uniformity among the clutter of boxes, furniture, and memories. All was frozen in limbo between the life just passed and the one to come. I suddenly became aware of the coldness of the garage, but I didn't want to go back inside the house, so I made my way through the boxes to the couch. I cleared a space to lie down and curled up, covering myself with my jacket. I hoped my father would return soon with the truck so we could empty the garage and leave the cryptic silence of parting lives behind. From Limbo by Rhonda Lucas

What is the author's mood?

 A. melancholytext annotation indicator 

 B. idealistictext annotation indicator

 C. vindictivetext annotation indicator

 D. indignanttext annotation indicator       

                                                                            

3. Read the statement or passage, and then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question based on what is stated or implied in the statement or passage.

 Australia has many strange beasts; one of the oddest is the koala. Perfectly adapted to one specific tree, the eucalyptus, this living teddy bear does not need anything else, not even a drink! The moisture in the leaves is just right for the koala, making it the only land animal that does not need water to supplement its food.

From That Astounding Creator –Nature by Jean George

This passage indicates that the koala:

A. Is a member of the bear family that does not drink.text annotation indicator

B. Gets all of its nourishment for the eucalyptus tree.text annotation indicator

C. Adapts itself to any surroundingstext annotation indicator.

D. Is the only animal that does not need food to live.text annotation indicator

 

4. Two underlined sentences are followed by a question or statement about them. Read each pair of sentences and then choose the best answer or the best completion of the statement.

Males and females are treated differently from grade school through college.

Therefore, this treatment of the sexes by school officials influences both the student's choice of career and the level of performance.

From Sociology by Scott and Sally Neal

How are the sentences related?

 A. The second sentence contradicts the first sentence.text annotation indicator

B. The second sentence shows a cause of the first sentence.text annotation indicator

C. The second sentence states an effect of the first sentence.text annotation indicator

 D. The second sentence defines an idea found in the first sentencetext annotation indicator

 

5. Read the statement or passage, and then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the statement or passage.

 While silk-stocking Manhattan is asleep, East Harlem is starting to bustle. The poor are early risers. They have the jobs that others don't want: the early-hour jobs, the late-hour jobs. The streets are filled with fast-moving people: men, women, and swarms of children of all sizes. Some will stand at the bus stops, but most will crowd into the downtown subways that speed them to jobs that serve the affluent. East Harlem is a busy place night and day, filled with the joyous and troubled lives of residents rather than the heavy commercial traffic of mid-Manhattan. There is so much togetherness. From A Day in East Harlem by Patricia Cayo Sexton

The main idea of this passage is that the residents of East Harlem:

 A. Are dissatisfied with their jobs.text annotation indicator

B. Are poorer than Manhattan's residents.text annotation indicator

C. Share common struggles and goals.text annotation indicator

D. Disdain the rich of Manhattan.text annotation indicator

   

6. Read the statement or passage below, and then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the statement or passage.

 In embarking on the fight for independence, America faced formidable obstacles. The Continental Congress did not have the authority to pass binding legislation or to impose taxes. The new nation had no army and no navy, and its population numbered only 2.5 million people, 20 percent of whom were slaves. Britain, by contrast, was a mighty power of 11 million people with the world's best navy and a well-disciplined army. Fifty thousand troops were in North America in 1776, and Britain hired thirty thousand German soldiers to supplement its forces during the war. However, the American Revolutionaries were not deterred.

From An American History by Rebecca Brooks Gruver

What is the main point of the passage?

A. Britain was the greater power whose population outnumbered that of America.text annotation indicator

B. America's military forces were less experienced than Britain's military.text annotation indicator

C. America's Continental Congress had limited authority.text annotation indicator

D. As America was about to engage in its struggle for independence, it was faced with difficult barriers.text annotation indicator

 

7. Two underlined sentences are followed by a question or statement about them. Read each pair of sentences and then choose the best answer to the question or completion of the statement.

 The function and meaning of the American family have changed over time.

There is now a stronger emphasis on romantic love between parents and an increase in the number of mothers in the workforce.

  From Sociology by Scott and Sally McNeill

What does the second sentence do?

A. It restates the idea found in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

B. It states an effect of the first sentence.text annotation indicator

C. It gives an example of the first sentence.text annotation indicator

D. It analyzes the statement made in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

 

8. Two underlined sentences are followed by a question or statement about them. Read each pair of sentences and then choose the best answer to the question or completion of the statement.

 The Midwest is experiencing its worst drought in fifteen years.

Corn and soybean prices are expected to be very high this year.

 From the College Board

What does the second sentence do?

 A. It restates the idea found in the first.text annotation indicator

B. It states a result or effect of the statement in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

C. It gives an example of the statement in the first sentence.text annotation indicator

D. It analyzes the statement made in the first.text annotation indicator

  

9. Read the statement or passage and then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the statement of the passage.

 It is early summer. August's long-awaited vacation time still seems ages away, but by the same token, its torpor-producing heat and mildew-generating humidity have not yet arrived. Instead, these cool end-of-June days practically insist on getting the picnic season under way immediately. But, alas, there is a difficulty: alfresco dining has a bad name among us. Tenth-rate hot dogs, carbonized chicken parts and beef a la charcoal lighter are principally what come to mind when we hear the words "outdoor food." From A Spanish Picnic by Robert Capon

 

The passage suggests that the author believes that…

 A. Picnicking is the best way to spend summer.text annotation indicator

B. August is better than June for a picnic.text annotation indicator

C. There are some negative aspects to eating outside.text annotation indicator

D. Picnicking is better alfresco.text annotation indicator

 

10. Read the statement or passage, and then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the statement of the passage.

Myths are stories, the products of fertile imagination, sometimes simple, often containing profound truths. They are not meant to be taken too literally. Details may sometimes appear childish, but most myths express a culture's most serious beliefs about human beings, eternity, and God. From The College Board

 

The main idea of this passage is that myths…

 A. Are created primarily to entertain young children.text annotation indicator

B. Are purposely written for a reader who lacks imagination.text annotation indicator

C. Provide the reader with a means of escape from reality.text annotation indicator

D. Illustrate the values that are considered important to a society.text annotation indicator